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Focusing the View Camera: A Scientific Way to Focus the View Camera and Estimate Depth of Field. by Harold M. Merklinger. Merklinger’s method is less widely used, but is much easier to apply in the field. . Harold Merklinger describes his method for optimizing depth of field here. Harold Merklinger on Depth of Field. If you arrived at this page by a direct link, it will be helpful for background information if you read my article, More on Depth.

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So the question is, which method works best?

If you want to learn more merklinver, please read the original book. Should I always focus at infinity? For a diagram explaining basic view camera depth of field, and providing a link to an on-line calculator, select this link.

The traditional approach treats the situation as follows.

Technical Books on Photography by Harold M. Merklinger

Understanding physical meaning of sharpness Is Harold Merklinger’s theory correct? The graph in Fig. It is quite obvious that the image in Fig.

Two cameras were added to the Unusual Cameras page on 8 Jan The red curve corresponds to the case when a lens in focused at the hyperfocal distance hwhile the blue curve represents the lens focused at infinity.

Hyperfocal distances and Merklinger’s method in landscape photography

This article compares Merklinger’s approach with the traditional theory and puts his ideas to the test. It is trickier than one might imagine – especially printing at high quality. The easiest way to demonstrate circles of confusion is to take several photographs on a street of a night town Fig. However, I am not going to describe any details of that verification, since both theories treat the subject in the same way. The contents of this page, the contents of other pages at this site and the contents of the downloadable portable document format files or printed versions thereof are copyright Harold M.


Does sharpness depend on the focal length at a constant magnification? If one asks “What do I need to do to resolve objects a quarter-inch in diameter at any subject distance? Because of this, it is not easy to derive simple practical formulas from it. The idea looks vague, doesn’t it?

These movies should loop back and forth properly with current versions of QuickTime. This is Harold’s first public showing of photographs in 63 years! A longer explanation is given on the separate View Camera Focus Page. I put this tiny formula here just for your reference.

BAC Event Photos

And that was one of my recommendations that I gave in another article – How do out-of-focus areas look like? When preparing the illustrations, I scanned the negatives dpi, which gives 3 pixels per the diameter of the circle of confusion. If the return link does not work because, for example, the server is busy go back to the previous page.

The essay by Ray Maxwell proclaims the end of Moore’s Law as it applies to photography.

Digital cameras bring a new set of potential pitfall to the imaging process. By similar triangles we can calculate the distance as. Theory of bokeh, ni-sen and other weird phenomena.

As we can see from this graph, if any important objects are closer to the camera than two hyperfocal distances 2hwe should focus our lens at the hyperfocal distance. How the near point varies with the chosen disk of confusion in Merklinger’s method.

It should be kept in mind that when we focus lenses at infinity, we always make close objects fuzzier. But at the same time they both deal with sharpness. If we change the focal distance of our lens while maintaining the same image magnification and keep the lens set to the same f-number, the zone of acceptable sharpness does not change.

The Photography Links page was revised – removing many non-functional links – on 15 December A page on the Object Field method of determining depth-of-field for view cameras was added on 24 Sept.


The suggested solution is to focus close to infinity to maximize the detail in distant tree leaves for example whilst, the use of a small aperture will render good detail on close objects like blades of grass. Deviation from the subject. So what are his recommendations? A reference has been added below to the use of the Scheimpflug Rule in Ophthalmology on 13 Nov It’s hard to take an out-of-focus landscape shot with lens if you set the focus manually to something reasonably close to the hyperfocal distance which, of course, varies with aperture.

The lenses were focused on the curtain. If focusing can be described by Fig. We focus our lens exactly at some hafold, D, from our lens.

Merklinger’s Photo Books

The constant magnification means the size of the plate, which was attached to the curtain, must be the same in all photographs. In this sense, Merklinger is right.

Now let us see at the foreground Fig. In my previous articles [ 12 ] Merklinter have already explained the basic ideas of depth of field and described all the necessary formulas to calculate it.

T wo intersections of such a horizontal line with the fuzziness curve will show us the limits of depth of mmerklinger DOF. Since the BAZAAR board was 10 times farther from the camera compared to the hyperfocal distance, it could be considered to be infinitely distant. To answer this question, I had to take several photographs with lenses of different focal lengths. It will give us the largest DOF in our picture. But a number of questions still remain unanswered.